Running head: GUIDED IMAGERY AND PROGRESSIVE MUSCLE RELAXATION
The three sub-categories of the national defense budget
The national defense budget of the United States is divided into three main categories: military personnel, operation and maintenance, and procurement.
1. Military personnel: This category covers the costs associated with recruiting, training, and paying military personnel, including active duty military, reserve and National Guard units, and civilian personnel. It also includes funding for military healthcare and retirement benefits.
2. Operation and maintenance: This category covers the costs of operating and maintaining military equipment, facilities, and infrastructure. It includes funding for training, transportation, fuel, and supplies.
3. Procurement: This category covers the costs of acquiring new military equipment and weapons systems, including research and development, testing, and production. It also includes funding for upgrading and modernizing existing equipment (Candreva, 2017).
The difference between un-obligated and un-expended funds
Un-obligated funds are funds that have been allocated by Congress but have not yet been committed to a specific purpose or project. These funds are typically held in reserve and can be used to pay for unforeseen expenses or to fund new initiatives. On the other hand, un-expended funds are funds allocated and obligated to a specific project or purpose but have not yet been used (Usgs.gov, 2022). These funds may be held in reserve in case the project requires additional resources, or they may be returned to the government if the project is completed before the funds are needed.
Both un-obligated and un-expended funds play an important role in the defense budget process. Un-obligated funds provide flexibility and allow the government to respond to changing circumstances or new priorities. On the other hand, un-expended funds provide a cushion of resources that can be used to ensure that projects are completed on time and within budget. In the defense budget process, un-obligated and un-expended funds are closely monitored by Congress and the DoD to ensure that they are being used efficiently and effectively. If a project requires more resources than originally planned, additional funds may be requested and allocated by Congress. Conversely, if a project is completed before the funds are needed, the un-expended funds may be returned to the government or reallocated to other priorities.
Candreva, P. J. (2017). National defense budgeting and financial management: Policy & practice. IAP.
Usgs.gov. (2022). Glossary | U.S. Geological Survey. Available at: https://www.usgs.gov/bpi/glossary [Accessed 22 Dec. 2022].
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